The Extent and Nature of Gambling Among College Student Athletes


o Table of Contents
o Executive Summary
o Introduction
o Review of the Literature
o Methodology
o Results
o Discussion
o Conclusion
o Bibliography
o Biography
o Acknowledgements
o Contact Information
o Purchase Copy


Following a description of the sample, the research findings are divided into three overlapping categories that parallel the sections from the original questionnaire. The sections are: I) general gambling activities; II) sports related gambling with friends; and III) gambling with bookmakers and other organized gambling activities.


Description of the Sample

The final sample consisted of 758 student athletes from a pool of 3000 surveys that were mailed. This was a response rate of 25.3%. Just over 60% of the student athlete respondents were male and 39% of the student athletes were female. The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 28 years old with an average age of 20.5 years. Fifty-two percent of the student athletes were under the age of 21, and 91.3% of respondents were between the traditional college ages of 18-22 years old.

Over 54% of the student athletes indicated that they were basketball players and 45.5% of the sample played football. Among the student athletes who participated in the sport of basketball, 27.6% were male and 72.4% were female. Seventy-six percent of the student athletes stated they received an athletic grant-in-aid while 24% received no athletically related financial support.

Table 1 provides additional background about the student athletes in the sample including the number of years they have competed in college, their self-described role on a team, and their grade point averages. Approximately half of the student athletes indicated that they had completed three or four years of athletic eligibility. Two-thirds of the respondents described their role on the team as either a starter or important substitute. Over 80% of the respondents had a grade point average of 2.5 or better on a 4.0 scale.

Table 1

Student Athlete Characteristics
(Eligibility Completed, Grade Point Average,
and Team Role)

  Percentage of Student Athletes
Eligibility Completed  
One year 21.3
Two years 23.7
Three years 22.5
Four years 27.1
Never competed (redshirt) 5.4

Grade Point Average (4.0 scale)

1.99 or lower 2.2
2.00 2.49 16.2
2.50 2.99 31.9
3.00 3.49 33.0
3.50 or higher 16.7

Student-Athlete's Self-Described Role On Team

Never competed 8.2
Rarely competed 9.5
Limited role 15.7
Important substitute 23.5
Starter 43.1



I) General Gambling Activities
II) Sports Related Gambling
III) Gambling with Bookmakers and Other Organized Gambling Activities



Table of Contents | Executive Summary | Introduction | Review of the Literature | Methodology | Results
Discussion | Conclusion | Bibliography | Biography | Acknowledgements | Contact Information