|TYPES OF SOCRATIC QUESTIONS|
Due to the rapid addition of new information and the
advancement of science and technology that occur almost daily, an engineer
must constantly expand his or her horizons beyond simple gathering information
and relying on the basic engineering principles.
A number of homework problems have been included that are
designed to enhance critical thinking skills. Critical thinking is the process
we use to reflect on, access and judge the assumptions underlying our own and
others ideas and actions.
Socratic questioning is at the heart of critical thinking and
a number of homework problems draw from R.W. Paul's Socratic
|1. Questions for
- Why do you say that?
- How does this relate to our discussion?
- "Are you going to include diffusion in your mole balance equations?"
|2. Questions that probe
- What could we assume instead?
- How can you verify or disapprove that
- "Why are neglecting radial diffusion and including only axial diffusion?"
|3. Questions that probe
reasons and evidence:
- What would be an example?
- What is....analogous to?
- What do you think causes to happen...? Why:?
- "Do you think that diffusion is responsible for the lower conversion?"
|4. Questions about Viewpoints
- What would be an alternative?
- What is another way to look at it?
- Would you explain why it is necessary or beneficial, and who benefits?
- Why is the best?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of...?
- How are...and ...similar?
- What is a counterargument for...?
- "With all the bends in the pipe, from an industrial/practical standpoint, do you think diffusion will affect the conversion?"
|5. Questions that probe
implications and consequences:
- What generalizations can you make?
- What are the consequences of that assumption?
- What are you implying?
- How does...affect...?
- How does...tie in with what we learned before?
- "How would our results be affected if neglected diffusion?"
|6. Questions about the
- What was the point of this question?
- Why do you think I asked this question?
- What does...mean?
- How does...apply to everyday life?
- "Why do you think diffusion is important?"
|7. Questions that Probe Purpose:
- What is the purpose of ... ?
- Was this purpose justifiable?
- What is the purpose of addressing this question at this time?
- What is the purpose of the main character in this story?
|8. Questions that Probe Concepts:
- What is the main idea we are dealing with?
- Why/How is this idea important?
- Do these two ideas conflict? If so, how?
- What main theories do we need to consider in figuring out ... ?
|9. Questions that Probe Inferences and Interpretations:
- What conclusions are we coming to ... ?
- What is the conclusion based on?
- How did you reach that conclusion?
- What do you think of ...?
- How to interpret the data?